Fear in the paramedic clinical environment

This article focuses on the physiological, emotional and behavioural response that is fear and considers how it impacts clinical practice. It may have some benefits; for example, the release of the st...


Diabetes and associated diabetic emergencies

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic complications of diabetes include accelerated...


An out-of-hospital perspective on hyperventilation syndrome

Hyperventilation and tachypnoea both involve breathing at an increased rate. There are a variety of causes of hyperventilation and conditions associated with it, including acute and chronic hyperventi...


Clinical decision-making and its place in paramedic practice

In the pre-hospital environment, paramedics are required to make clinical decisions, often rapidly to ensure correct treatment and care is provided. Decisions made by paramedics majorly impacts on the...


Empathy in paramedic practice: an overview

Empathy is generally considered to be the understanding of another person's reactions, thoughts, feelings and problems, and being able to relay this sense of understanding back to the individual. Empa...


Management of cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: part 2

Cardiogenic shock is a leading cause of death in those experiencing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The objective of therapeutic strategies is to preserve end-organ perfusion and reduce mo...


Management of cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: part 1

Cardiogenic shock associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a potentially devastating complication. This type of shock consists of left ventricular dysfunction causing haem...


Hypothermia: exploring causes and treatment options

The regulation of a patient's body temperature is a key part of a paramedic's duty during treatment. Preventing hypothermia by keeping a core body temperature above 35°C and providing sufficient warmi...


What's that rash? Key dermatological presentations for the paramedic

This article presents an overview of the additional aspects of history-taking that need to be considered when assessing patients presenting with a rash. This relies on strong underpinning anatomy and ...


Use of targeted temperature management post cardiac arrest

The term targeted temperature management (TTM) is used to describe the management of a patient's body temperature following cardiac arrest and has replaced the term therapeutic hypothermia. TTM has th...


Heart block as a complication of acute myocardial infarction: the anatomical and physiological mechanisms

Heart block (HB) is a recognised complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is often a marker for increased mortality and morbidity. An appreciation of the anatomical and physiological mech...


Advanced care planning in end-of-life care: the key role of ambulance services

Effective communication and coordination between individual care providers is vitally important to ensure that patients' wishes are respected throughout their care and when they die, as well as that f...

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