α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitors for urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition that develops in the majority of men and is by some estimates is the most prevalent of all minor ailments. A healthily functioning prostate is important for...


Digital health evolution and application: astronauts, starlings and Hedwig Kiesler

Digital health technologies in the NHS have had a largely leisurely uptake over recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, witnessed a sharp rise in their application, with remote clinical consulta...


Respecting an autonomous decision to refuse life-saving treatment: a case study

Autonomy is a key principle in biomedical ethics, giving patients the right to be involved in their own care. Professional autonomy allows paramedics to make critical decisions around patient care in ...


Mitigation of risk, effective communication and scene management of major incidents

Communication and collaborative working between emergency services at the scene of a major incident are paramount to gain the best outcome for patients and the wider public. This module aims to improv...


Applying organisational behaviour theory to aid emergency staff retention

The purpose of this theoretical concept article is to spark a dialogue on the use of organisational behaviour theory to address emergency responder retention. In the United States, emergency medical s...


Excited delirium syndrome

Mental health calls make up a large proportion of ambulance workloads, with paramedics responding to a wide range of presentations such as anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and exc...


Assessment of women during early pregnancy

Approximately 5% of the workload of UK emergency ambulance services involves managing obstetric patients. This places pregnancy firmly within the scope of prehospital care, but training often focuses ...


Road resilience: adaptive education for emerging challenges

The reality of paramedicine can cause students emotional distress, especially if this tests their values or beliefs. Therefore, educating students to be resilient and prepared for unpredictable, distr...


Cognitive biases and their effects on practice: a case study reflection

Clinical decision-making is a key aspect of the student paramedic journey. In particular, it is vital that students can understand the theories that underpin this vital facet of their practice. This a...


Managing ambiguity and uncertainty in clinical decision-making

Ambiguity and uncertainty are unavoidable elements of clinical practice. Although they can cause discomfort for both clinicians and patients, they can also be used to positive effect ensuring safer cl...


Comparison of buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for seizures in children

buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam are used as first-line drugs to control seizures in children. Immediate treatment and management of a continuing seizure is vital to ensure its safe, effective and...


Effects of nebulised beta-2 agonists on clinical observations in asthma exacerbations

Despite concerns over their side effects, short-acting beta-2 agonists are still used in high doses in prehospital care internationally to treat asthma exacerbations. This systematic review set out to...

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