Identifying and managing hyperkalaemia in the prehospital environment

Hyperkalaemia is defined as a high level of potassium within the blood. Potassium concentration is normally tightly regulated at 3.5–5.5 mmol/litre. Hyperkalaemia can have major consequences for muscl...


Recognition and management of COVID-19 and other influenza-like illnesses: a guide for paramedics

During the pandemic last year, the incidence of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) was significantly lower, as preventive measures aimed to reduce the spread of COVID-19, were also successful in preventi...


Publishing an academic paper: basics of the submission process

Publishing an academic paper and going through the submission process can be unfamiliar and daunting. This article will provide a basic overview of where to start, how to search and scrutinise journal...


Prehospital treatment of rhabdomyolysis in people who fall

Of people aged 65 and older, 30% will fall at least once per year—for people aged over 80, this rises to 50%. Patients who remain on the floor for a long time are at risk of developing rhabdomyolysis....


Prehospital clopidogrel use and STEMI management: a review

Clopidogrel is an anticoagulant commonly used in the prehospital environment for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Some ambulance services have incorporated this into their...


A current guide to airway management in prehospital patient care

A patent airway linking the nose and mouth with the lungs is essential to life. In emergency care, individuals may experience airway difficulties for many reasons including major trauma, airway inflam...


The role of the paramedic in identifying modern slavery

Modern slavery is the recruitment or harbouring of people through the use of force and coercion for exploitation. Paramedics have significant potential and unique opportunities regarding the detection...


Exploring the clinical debrief: benefits and barriers

Paramedics are regularly exposed to traumatic situations in the prehospital environment, which can profoundly affect their emotional resilience. A debrief is a recognised tool that is used to manage t...


Legal issues in end-of-life care 2: consent and decision-making

Paramedics are legally and professionally obliged to uphold their patients' right to dignity, respect and autonomy—and this includes the general requirement to obtain their consent before proceeding w...


Paramedic ethics, capacity and the treatment of vulnerable patients

Vulnerable patients are at an increased risk of harm or exploitation in healthcare. Their vulnerability may impede their autonomy, which can then affect their ability to self-advocate. Clinicians have...


End-of-life care part 1: implications for paramedic practice

Caring for patients who are approaching the end of life is an important part of the paramedic's role. Patients' circumstances are individual; for some, death is expected and may even a welcome (albeit...


Ethics and law in paramedic practice: boundaries of capacity and interests

Decision-making is central to the everyday practice of paramedicine. Paramedics must deliver appropriate clinical care within the boundaries of the law, clinical guidelines and evidence-based standard...

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